20th Century, History, Minnesota, Science, Uncategorized

William Bell Riley: Minnesota’s Link to the Scopes Monkey Trials

riley_at_desk

July 21, 1925
William Bell Riley was the pastor of First Baptist Church of Minneapolis, Minnesota from 1897 until 1942. Riley was a theological conservative and advocate for the New Hampshire Confession of Faith of 1833. In 1919, he founded the World Christian Fundamentals Association as resource for the Church in an era of modernism. In 1947, Riley persuaded Billy Graham to become president of his university and seminary; the Northwestern Bible College (University of Northwestern-Saint Paul).*

According to William Vance Trollinger Jr., author of God’s Empire: Wiliam Bell Riley and Midwestern Fundamentalism. (1990, The University of Wisconsin Press.), Riley was “…the dominant figure in American fundamentalism in the first half of the twentieth century. More than any other individual, it was Riley who, in the decade after World War I, marshaled the fundamentalist forces into crusades designed to purify both American Protestantism and American culture in general”. “Riley was the founder and leading spokesperson of the World’s Christian Fundamentals Association (WCFA), the first organization that attempted to unite conservative Christians of all denominations in an international association. An indefatigable polemicist, he was one of the most active and effective debaters among American antievolutionists”.***

Given this stance, it is no surprise that he was aware of a small trial developing in Tennessee that would become a touchstone of controversy in American culture; the evolution of man vs. the creation of man. Riley responded by tapping, perhaps, the greatest orator of the 20th century to defend the Church; William Jennings Bryan. It also bode well for the Fundamentalists that Jennings was a man of influence: lawyer and three-time Democratic presidential nominee, former United States Secretary of State, lifelong Presbyterian, and a man of the people.

The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was a famous American legal case in 1925 in which a high school teacher John Scopes was accused of violating Tennessee’s Butler Act which made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100, but the verdict was overturned on a technicality. It became a national show trial highlighting the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy. Famed orator and politician William Jennings Bryan argued the Fundamentalist position that the Word of G-d revealed in the Bible took priority over all human knowledge. Clarence Darrow, a powerful defense attorney and labor lawyer, argued the Modernist position that evolution was not inconsistent with religion. It became a theological contest between the two camps as to which should be taught in public schools.**

In Your mercy, Lord hear our prayer. We, the State of Minnesota, being comprised both of people of faith and those who believe in the supremacy of science have judged You. Our greatest offenses to You, perhaps, are judging Your ability to create, that You are not the author of all science and natural laws of the universe, and indirectly, by attempting to usurp Your benevolent moral authority as the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the ending of all. We, who live in the dusty bookshelf of our observations within linear history, do not comprehend the Ancient of Days, the Eternal Now, the I Am. Great One, will You forgive us; back then in 1925, now, and into the future?

Will You have mercy on the beliefs and misbeliefs of William Bell Riley, the WFCA, and the Fundamentalist movement of this era? Their root fears, in this case, likely would be that teaching evolution alongside creationism would cast doubts on the truthfulness and historicity of Your Word. To amplify further, public schools may eventually abandon teaching the Bible at all, based on the premise that it’s “unscientific” where it addresses science, and that it’s values are static rather than evolutionary. Though one needs to understand it to thoroughly grasp the greatest writings of Western civilization, it could also be deemed untenable as literature.

Granted, their fears have come true in less than 90 years. We do not currently rely on the Bible for any use in public education in Minnesota. Yet, where they closed their ears to Your voice spoken through science and evolution, will You have mercy? Will You forgive where fundamentalists’ fears may have blocked the growth of students eager to study a species’ curious abilities of adaption?

Similarly, will You have mercy on the beliefs and misbeliefs of the modernists and evolutionists of this era? They likely feared that their students would subject their minds to the shaky traditions and teaching of Your Word without the ability to “scientifically” test them to be credible. Were their suppositions of the infallibility of the scientific method and reproducible experiments even the correct means to assess any book, let alone Your Revealed Word written over a span of 2,000 years by forty different authors from three different continents? What are the correct means of testing the reliability of writing?*****

First, does a book of antiquity pass the basic principals of historiography: the bibliographical test, the internal evidence test, and the external evidence test? What type of manuscript evidence exists? How many extant copies of the book do we possess, and how close are these copies to the date of publishing? These are useful questions our educators have failed to ask of Your Word. Have mercy on our lack of curiosity!*****

Next, does archaeology support or refute the claims of the Bible? Below, two giants in the field give their testimony on the subject.
Nelson Glueck, the renowned Jewish archaeologist said, “It may be stated categorically that no archaeological discovery has ever controverted a biblical reference.” Rivers in the Desert; History of Negev. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1969, p33.

“There can be no doubt that archaeology has confirmed the substantial historicity of Old Testament tradition.” William F. Albright Archaeology and the Religions of Israel. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1956, p1.

Again, were the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament fulfilled in Christ? Below is a brief list of Old Testament prophecies and their New Testament fulfillment:
Born of a seed of woman – Galatians 4:4
Born of a virgin – Matthew 1:18
Son of G-d – Matthew 3:17
Seed of Abraham – Galatians 3:16
Son of Isaac – Luke 3:23
Son of Jacob – Luke 3:23,34
Tribe of Judah – Hebrews 7:14
Family line of Jesse – Luke 3:23,32
House of David – Revelation 22:16
Born at Bethlehem – Matthew 2:1
Presented with gifts – Matthew 2:11
Herod kills children – Mathew 2:16
His pre-existence – Colossians 1:17
He shall be called ‘Lord’ – Luke 2:11
Shall be Immanuel – Matthew 1:23
Shall be a prophet – Matthew 21:11
Priest – Hebrews 3:11
Judge – John 5:30
King – Matthew 27:37
Special anointment of Holy Spirit – Matthew 3:16,17
His zeal for G-d – John 2:15-17
Preceded by a messenger – Matthew 3:1,2
Ministry to begin in Galilee – Mathew 4:12,13,17
Ministry of Miracles – Mathew 9:35
Teacher of parables – Matthew 13:34
He was to enter the Temple – Matthew 21:12
He was to enter Jerusalem on a donkey – Luke 19:35-37
“Stone of stumbling” to Jews – I Peter 2:7
Light to Gentiles – Acts 13:47-48
Resurrection – Acts 2:31
Ascension – Acts 1:9
Seated at the right hand of G-d – Hebrews 3:1
Betrayed by a friend – Matthew 10:4
Sold for 30 pieces of silver – Matthew 26:15
Money to be thrown in Temple – Matthew 27:5
Price given for potter’s field – Matthew 27:7
Forsaken by disciples – Mark 14:50
Accused by false witnesses – Matthew 26:59,60
Dumb (silent) before accusers – Matthew 27:12
Wounded and bruised – Matthew 27:26
Smitten and spit upon – Matthew 26:67
Mocked – Matthew 27:31
Fell under the Cross – John 19:17
Hand and feet pierced – Luke 23:33
Crucified with thieves – Matthew 27:38
Made intercession for his persecutors – Luke 23:34
Rejected by his own people – John 7:5,48
Hated without cause – John 15:25
Friends stood afar off – Luke 23:49
People shook their heads – Matthew 27:39
Stared upon – Luke 23:35
Garments parted and lots cast – John 19:23,24
To suffer thirst – John 19:28
Gall and vinegar offered him – Matthew 27:34
His forsaken cry – Matthew 27:46
Committed himself to G-d – Luke 23:46
Bones not broken – John 19:33
Heartbroken – John 19:34
His side pierced – John 19:34
Darkness over the land – Matthew 27:45
Buried in a rich man’s tomb – Matthew 27:57-60

Professor Peter Stoner used these claims as an exercise in probability. If we used only eight items in this list, …”We find that the chance that any man might have lived down to the present time and fulfilled all eight prophecies is 1 in 10 to the 17th power.” If we increased that number to forty eight prophecies, …”We find the chance that any one man fulfilled all 48 prophecies to be 1 in 10 to the 157th power.” *****

All this to say that using the suppositions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace, and or any other scientific method is an incomplete assessment of the truthfulness of the Bible, or the proper yardstick to judge any book. Your revelations in scripture are scientific where it applies to science, but how would Darwin’s method be meaningful across all time, beyond time, and to all subjects?
Human beings are not present to all time, therefore, is it possible that modernism falls apart due to lack of presence to observe, test, and record the conditions of reproducible experiments and their results? Will You forgive these judgments based on our infinitesimal comprehension of time, or the concept that time is a creature under Your control?

Ultimately, modernism has taught us that we are a chance, therefore, not subject to the moral laws of any deity. If we are the beginning, then we are the end. If all morals are subject to the forces of evolution, then all values are the determination of each human being. There are no distinctions between lightness and darkness, cruelty and love; there is only survival of the fittest. The ends justify the means.

Mercifully, You are the Alpha and the Omega. You are not offended by our quest to understand the universe. We know love because You have demonstrated love through Christ’s life, death, and resurrection. We know hate because we have experienced the absence of Your presence. We have worth built on the stability that we are declared worthy by the King of the Universe. That worth will go on after modernism, fundamentalism, or any ‘ism’ is no more.

Lord, we thank You that our society wrestled with the question of origins in the Scopes Monkey trial. In spite of its upheaval in the world of education, we have still remained a people. Will You give us the grace to continue to wrestle with our existential questions in the future? Will You bring Your Presence to all students in Minnesota?

1Then the Lord spoke to Job out of the storm. He said:
2“Who is this that obscures my plans
with words without knowledge?
3Brace yourself like a man;
I will question you,
and you shall answer me.
4“Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation?
Tell me, if you understand.
5Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know!
Who stretched a measuring line across it?
6On what were its footings set,
or who laid its cornerstone—
7while the morning stars sang together
and all the angels shouted for joy? Job 38:1-7 NIV****

*https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Bell_Riley
**https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scopes_Trial
***http://faithful-nation.com/2017/07/14/william-bell-riley-and-fundamentalist-anti-semitism/
****http://biblehub.com/niv/job/38.htm
*****McDowell, Josh. Evidence that Demands a Verdict.Nashville, Atlanta, London, Vancouver: Thomas Nelson, 1979.

 

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20th Century, Culture, History, Minnesota, Native Americans, Uncategorized

Society of American Indians Conference

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Oct 2, 1919 to Oct 4, 1919
The eighth convention of the Society of American Indians is held in Minneapolis.

“It is not right that the Indian, who fought for his country in France, go back to his tribe without the right to vote.” —Dr. Charles A. Eastman, a Dakota Indian born near Redwood Falls who becomes president of the Society of American Indians and a professor at Amherst College.*

At first glance, this issue seems like a slam dunk; American citizens have the right to vote, Indians of this era were American citizens, therefore this is a breech of their Constitutionally secured rights. It breaks faith with both the spirit and the letter of our law. Perhaps Eastman’s statement errs, however, in the assumption that most Indians were citizens?

Through the efforts of individuals and organizations like his, the Dakota would eventually be recognized as citizens by the Indian Freedom Citizenship Suffrage Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act. Unfortunately, before 1924, only about 8% of Indians were U.S. citizens, therefore, it is somewhat logical that they did not vote in a nation they did not wish to be part of. ** Many considered the tribe of origin to be their sovereign nation within U.S. borders before the Snyder Act, and many tribes are defined as “First Nations” for the same reason today.

To add a spiritual dimension, we can explore a relationship between civil rights and worship dysfunctions. Both concepts speak to the inherent, unalienable value of a subject. Civil rights are directed to protect the intrinsic, non-negotiable worth conferred by G-d upon each human being. Worship, perhaps, could be defined as human recognition and practice of the intrinsic, non-negotiable worth of G-d. When and where we are dysfunctional in our worship of G-d, we open ourselves to be dysfunctional in respecting the worthiness and honor of our human neighbors.

Prior to his time organizing for SAI, he organized for the YMCA in western states and Canada among Indians. Below is quote of some observations that informed his faith.

“During that time, as an avowed Christian, Eastman nevertheless seemed to maintain a reflective stance toward that religion because of his early traditional Dakota upbringing. He studied what he called “the Protestant missionary effort among Indians” and “almost unconsciously reopened the book of my early religious training.” He wondered how it was “that our simple lives [before Christianity] were so imbued with the spirit of worship, while much churchgoing among white and Christian Indians led often to such very small results.” *** ***https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/news/opinions/dr-charles-eastman-a-dakotas-conflicted-take-on-christianity/

Lord hear our prayer for Minnesotan’s of 1919. We are guilty of a worship dysfunction in this era. We have attempted to assume the rights of citizenship in Your kingdom without humility. Our legal status is based on the unmerited favor and rights bestowed on us by the blood of the risen Messiah! How can we receive unmerited legal access to the King of the Universe, and then deny legal rights to those we see everyday?

Likewise, our worship dysfunctions manifested in our failure to recognize Your image and worthiness and inherent legal rights of our Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota neighbors. Will You have mercy on our lack of mercy for these neighbors? Will You have mercy on our worship dysfunctions that usurp Your position as Author of All Human rights!?

Will You raise our awareness of the perfection of Your authority? May we be humble and learn from our elders about our relationships and laws; human to human. May we receive our justice as a gift from the One so that we can pass it to the many until You reign forever! Amen.

 

* P.T.H. cites timeline formerly at this URL: mnhs.org/about/dipity_timeline.htm
The Minnesota Historical Society Web site, http://www.mnhs.org, is fantastic! Check it out! Images are from https://images.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl; again, an amazing resource!
** https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Citizenship_Act
***https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/news/opinions/dr-charles-eastman-a-dakotas-conflicted-take-on-christianity/
A nice summary of the life of Dr. Charles Eastman. (aka Hakadah and Ohiyesa) http://aktalakota.stjo.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=8884

 

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19th Century, History, Intercession, Jesus, Minnesota, music

Dvorak Composes at Falls

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1893
Antonin Dvorak, the renowned Czech composer, visits Minnehaha Falls in Minneapolis. Inspired by the beauty of the scene, he composes a melody on the spot, writing the music on his starched shirt cuff. The “Minnehaha Theme” is featured as a violin line in Dvorak’s Sonatina in G Major, opus 100.*

Master, first name You describe Yourself with in the scriptures is “Elohim”, which means something akin to “Artist” or “Strong Creator”. Your signature is in, around, and through all creation. You have created living art that is capable of reproduction, yet each “copy” is a unique masterpiece?! Whether we view the nano particle level through microscopes, observe with our own eyes, or with powerful telescopes, we are in awe of Your handiwork!

It is no wonder that Dvorak saw an inspiring scene at Minnehaha Falls. It’s beauty has been renowned by Minnesotans for generations. What is a wonder is his response; that this beauty is so valued that it is worth recording immediately without thought to practicality or cost. Thank You that Antonin instantly responded to the beauty presented to him!

Will You bless him, his family, and the nation of the Czech Republic? Will You bless his indirect generations of artists, composers, writers, and simply those who listen and respond to greatness? Will You bless this place and those who visit it in perpetuity?

Will You forgive us the judgments we as a people make on those who follow instinct? Will You forgive our judgments of those who pursue their visions, no matter how absurd or irrational they may appear? I believe it was the Celts who likened the Holy Spirit to the wild goose. Will You give us wisdom and discernment to support those on “a wild goose chase”?

*P.T.H. cites timeline formerly at this URL: mnhs.org/about/dipity_timeline.htm
The Minnesota Historical Society Web site, http://www.mnhs.org , is fantastic! Check it out! Images are from https://images.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl; again, an amazing resource!

** Read more about Dvorak’s visit to these lovely falls? http://www.classicalmpr.org/story/2014/07/24/the-music-of-minnehaha-falls
*** Learn about a “wild goose chase”? http://thewildgooseisloose.com/why-wild-goose/

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19th Century, African American, History, Intercession, Jesus, Minnesota, Politics, women

1892 Republican National Convention in Minneapolis

theresa-a-jenkins-portrait-archives

Jun 7, 1892 to Jun 10, 1892
The 1892 Republican National Convention was held in Minneapolis and was also the first convention where women were allowed to be delegates. Mrs. Therese Alberta (Parkinson) Jenkins, delegate from Wyoming, cast the first vote by a woman for President. Wyoming had granted full suffrage for women at statehood in 1890.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1892_Republican_National_Convention

Politics, in practice, is often a game of solidifying one’s base and fracturing the support of political opponents. One seeks to heal and forgive, while the other actively fragments relationships and maintains a grudge?! Although there will always be those who are honestly committed to their principles, most often, the duplicitous ‘win-at-all-cost’ partisans seem to be the norm.

Rules and procedures are put in place to ensure that conventions are fair. However, those who know the rules often use them to beat up those who don’t, or those who simply trust in the integrity of their party. It’s like watching a board game played by children; the worst child will change the rules until he wins!

Jesus, show me what You see. I have limited vision of this convention, but am not unfamiliar with the Republican Party. Help me dredge what is crucial, and leave the rest of the silt at the bottom of the river.

To begin, I thank You that one day, You will bring Your government to earth, and we will see real peace! Thank You that You cannot be double-minded, or attempt to create something good with false motives! You are the summit of integrity because You are perfect in contentment! You resist all bribes because there are no possessions that finite beings can give to the Eternal “I Am”!

Your names in the Bible describe your character, and they include both male and female attributes. Men and women are both made in Your image. Thank You that we finally began to recognize this fact politically on June 7, 1892! Will You bless this day, those who participated, their opponents, and their heritage?

Will You forgive the dominant male pride and ego in the politics of Minnesota, its parties, and conventions? Conversely, will You forgive the bitter counter-judgments of women whether past, present, or future? Men want to lead like men, women want to lead like women, and we both fail to recognize Your wisdom and glory in the other at times! We fail to see Your hand of leadership in the other because we do not recognize its style or legitimacy. Have mercy on our judgments of our fathers’ strength of love, and our mothers’ tenderness of love!

Bless the heritage of pioneers like Mrs. Therese Alberta (Parkinson) Jenkins of Wyoming. Bless her commitment and bravery in becoming the first female delegate to represent any state in a national convention. Will You reverse the curses of this convention of 1892, and may we receive Your future insights whether housed in a male or female messenger?

To read more, see: http://www.mnopedia.org/event/republican-national-convention-june-1892

Another wonderful article about the convention? Read “African Americans and the 1892 Republican National Convention, Minneapolis” by Iric Nathanson
http://collections.mnhs.org/mnhistorymagazine/articles/61/v61i02p076-082.pdf

 

 

 

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19th Century, Gender, Health, Intercession, Jesus, Medicine, Minnesota, University

Ripley Maternity Hospital Opens

unknown

1886
Dr. Martha Ripley opens a maternity hospital for unwed mothers in Minneapolis. A pioneer in combining social care with medical treatment, she teaches new mothers how to care for their babies and helps them find work.

Martha Ripley’s training was in medicine, but her interest was in the rights of women. She advocated for women’s right to vote and consistently argued against the abuses that led women to her hospital.*

Thank you, Lord, that your personality is balanced; You are protector and nurturer! Will You bless Martha Ripley and her generations in the imitation of Your character? She expressed the mother nurture for those women and girls who did not have an adequate voice in society, or means for their pregnancy.
Our society has often skewed into imbalance in its’ emphasis of one gender over the other. We have denied the good attributes and blessings of the opposite sex that You have intended for our state. We have failed to balance our head and our heart! We have failed to balance rational thought with the relational thoughts based on love. Lord have mercy!
How has this been expressed? In the over emphasis of male political leadership and exclusive male voting rights for much of our history. We have suppressed the benefits of female scholarship, and the Imago Dei that is intellectually expressed best by a female mind. Our churches have too often promoted female submission to male head of households, without equally emphasizing male responsibility to selfless love and leadership. We have negated Your example of humble servant-leadership. Hear our prayer!
Lord, will You forgive us for discounting your voice in the opposite sex? Will You forgive the negation of female doctors, scientists, and cultural leaders like Dr. Ripley? Lord, will forgive us for emphasis on submission rather than freedom? Will You teach us the healthy bounds of submission to one another in choice-based love?
Will You stop us from overreacting and rejecting the opposite sex based on our painful experiences? Will You help Minnesotans’ forgive our mothers or fathers, and deliver us from the cycle of offense, counter-offense? Will You give us the forbearance for our ‘beloved enemies’ of the opposite sex? All our rejections of the opposite sex deny Your masterpiece in each. Will You forgive us?

*P.T.H. cites timeline formerly at this URL: mnhs.org/about/dipity_timeline.htm
The Minnesota Historical Society Web site, http://www.mnhs.org , is fantastic! Check it out! Images are from https://images.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl; again, an amazing resource!

**Find out more about “the duty of not keeping silent”? http://historyapolis.com/blog/2014/04/04/the-duty-of-not-keeping-silent-martha-ripley-and-minneapolis-maternity-hospital/

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19th Century, Architecture, Civics, History, Industry, Intercession, Jesus, Minnesota

Industrial Exposition

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1886
The Mill City answers St. Paul’s State Fair with the Minneapolis Industrial Exposition. Despite elaborate attractions and the latest wares of 800 exhibitors, the exposition can’t compete with the fair and closes its doors in 1893.*

“The idea for an exposition in Minneapolis arose in August 1885, when it became known that St. Paul had secured the permanent home of the Minnesota State Fair. Prominent citizens of Minneapolis such as Minneapolis Tribune owner Alden Blethen felt slighted, and an open meeting was called to gauge public support for an annual Minneapolis industrial fair, or exposition, to rival St. Paul’s agricultural one.”**

Lord, we are competitors. Competition is not a sin, but the envy or covetousness that often accompany it leads to disunity or complete breaks in relationship. What do You want to reveal?
The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul have had friendly rivalries that go far into our history. Will You forgive, first, the jokes, speech, and written words that have been used to put down the ‘other’ Twin City? Will You forgive the heart it reveals, one of mockery and pride?
How many actions have resulted in our heritage because one “prominent citizen” felt slighted? There is nothing wrong with a human being of any status in society taking leadership according to their conscience. However, if the attitude of civic pride, in this case personified by Alden Blethen was an offense to You, will You forgive us? Will You forgive us our pettiness over another’s blessing? Will you help us; “seek the peace and prosperity of the city to which I have carried you into exile. Pray to the LORD for it, because if it prospers, you too will prosper.” Jeremiah 29:7 ***
You have ideas for both of these places that we have not considered. What are they? Will you replace the rivalry of Minneapolis and St. Paul stemming from the Industrial Exposition of 1886 with blessing? Will You download into us a mindset that rejoices at the success of the other? Will You bless us with the kind of competition that brings virtue and excellence?

*P.T.H. cites timeline formerly at this URL: mnhs.org/about/dipity_timeline.htm
The Minnesota Historical Society Web site, http://www.mnhs.org , is fantastic! Check it out! Images are from https://images.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl; again, an amazing resource!

**Learn about the short life of this huge structure?
http://www.mnopedia.org/structure/industrial-exposition-building-minneapolis

***http://biblehub.com/jeremiah/29-7.htm

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19th Century, Agriculture, Business, Civics, Culture, government, History, Intercession, Jesus, Minnesota, State Government

State Fair Finds a Home, Ramsey County Poor Farm Loses

mn_state_fair_4

1885
The Minnesota State Fair finds a permanent home in the Midway area of Saint Paul.      (The 1885 fair was the 27th annual state fair.)*

Lord, it does help to have more information when interceding; and most facets of life. Even with my limited research, I see a few things: 1. The Fair was a positive statement by the city of St. Paul and MN. 2. There were poor people who were displaced. 3. There was a sense of rivalry between Minneapolis and St. Paul. 4. The shift of care for poor from the county to the state to the Federal government.
To begin, I want to announce to the land formerly known as the Ramsey County Poor Farm the jubilee and blessing of the Lord Jesus Christ! Thank you for this example of caring for the the elderly and poor! I want to bless those generations attached to the Poor Farm whether as employees or residents, and ask that any bitterness on their part be forgiven and removed.
Lord, will you forgive our lack of relationship with those in need? Will you heal the rift over HOW we do charity, and WHAT it looks like? Each election, we still battle over WHO gets the credit for being charitable; the State or individuals!?! May this land that is now called the state fair be a place where we iron out these differences! May we find Your way of blessing each other; rich to poor, in any state of health!
Also, will you forgive the political and business rivalry between Minneapolis and St. Paul? Jesus, will you make these “Twin Cities” live at peace with each other? Holy Spirit, will you inhabit this property now known as the State Fair and bring your life there? Will You dignify the poor and show them their potential for society, and most importantly, their eternal value to You?

*P.T.H. cites timeline formerly at this URL: mnhs.org/about/dipity_timeline.htm
The Minnesota Historical Society Web site, http://www.mnhs.org , is fantastic! Check it out! Images are from https://images.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl; again, an amazing resource!

More on how the poorhouse was transformed into the Minnesota State Fair:
**http://www.postcardy.com/msf.html

Competition between cities for a fairgrounds:

***http://www.mnopedia.org/structure/industrial-exposition-building-minneapolis

Alternative means of providing for the poor:

****https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poorhouse

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